Abdul Waheed (Late)

 

Abdul Waheed Memorial Blood Donor Society

In Memory Of My Beloved Father Who Always Wanted To Help Others In Time Of Need & Inspired Me To Do The Same. May Allah Have Mercy On His Soul & May He Always Rest In Peace. Do Pray for My Father, Me & The Blood Donor Team for this Humble Effort. -- Regards Usman Waheed [ PIA Flight Services Lahore Pakistan ]

 

Diabetes

There are different kinds of diabetes

Basically there is ‘diabetes mellitus’ - this shows by the body being unable to handle sugar so it causes thirst, frequency of urination, tiredness and many other symptoms.

There are two kinds depending on whether or not you need insulin.

They are called Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) 'Type 1 diabetes' and Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes). This latter type is more common in older people and overweight people and can sometimes be controlled just with diet.

Then there is a much rarer condition called ‘diabetes insipidus’, which is caused by a hormonal excess from a gland under the brain and actually has absolutely nothing to do with the other kinds - it presents with just thirst and frequent urination.

It needs a completely different kind of treatment.

Some information on type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
In Type 1 diabetes, blood sugar is controlled by insulin.
The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen and has two main functions:

  • to produce a juice that flows into the digestive system to help us digest food
  • to produce the hormone called insulin.

Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin output because of auto-immune damage to the pancreas gland.
            
(Term watch: Type 1 diabetes used to be called 'insulin dependent diabetes’.)
This is because this type of diabetes always requires insulin treatment.
As some people with Type 2 diabetes now also require insulin, the term Type 1 is preferred.
Damage to the pancreas can occur for a many reasons, eg a viral infection. But the most common cause in Type 1 diabetes is the body’s own immune system.
Insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of people with Type 1 diabetes are destroyed by cells that normally defend us from invading organisms.
This is called an ‘auto-immune’ process, referring to the fact the body appears to turn against itself.
      Auto-immune diseases
      There are other auto-immune diseases, for example of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
      They are more frequent in people who have Type 1 diabetes.
      This may reflect an inherited tendency to developing auto-immune disease that is triggered by some other factor in the environment.
      Exactly what that trigger can be is still unclear, but there is some evidence to suggest that a virus infection or cow's milk could start the process off.

Some information on Type 2 Diabetes
            
Type 2 diabetes
        
      Exercise reduces insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes.
The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach and has two main functions:

  • to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help us digest food
  • to produce the hormone called insulin.

Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body.
Type 2 diabetes is caused by:
            
(Term watch: Type 2 diabetes used to be called ‘non-insulin dependent diabetes’.)
This is because insulin injections were not part of its treatment.
As some people with Type 2 also now require insulin, the term Type 2 is preferred.

  • insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas
  • a resistance to the action of insulin in the body's cells - especially in muscle, fat and liver cells.

Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with being overweight, but it's less clear what causes it, compared to the Type 1 disease.
In the first few years after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes high levels of insulin circulate in the blood because the pancreas can still produce the hormone. Eventually insulin production dwindles.
For reasons we don't understand, the effect of insulin is also impaired. This means it doesn't have its normal effect on the cells of the body. This is called insulin resistance.

What is insulin resistance?
Insulin resistance has a number of knock-on effects:

  • it causes high blood glucose
  • it disturbs the fat levels in the blood, making the arteries of the heart more likely to clog (coronary heart disease).
  • it raises blood pressure.

The insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in people with Type 2 diabetes don't seem to come under attack from the immune system as they do in Type 1.
But they are still unable to cope with the need to produce a surge of insulin after a meal.
Normally, this insulin surge causes the body to store excess glucose coming in and so keeps the blood sugar level fairly constant.
            
(Term watch: Beta cells: cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.)
But in Type 2 diabetes, response from the cells is inadequate, causing blood glucose levels to rise after meals. This lack of responsiveness from the beta cells is called ‘beta cell failure’.

How common is it?
Type 2 diabetes is far more common than Type 1: 90 per cent of people with diabetes have this type.
People who develop Type 2 diabetes are usually older than those with Type 1.
But the distinction between the two types in all respects, including age, is becoming blurred.

What are the symptoms?
One of the major problems with Type 2 diabetes is in its early stages symptoms can be so mild they go unnoticed.
This means that as many as half of those diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes have had the condition for months or even years before they know it.
It also means that a very high proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes already show signs of tissue damage to the eyes or hardening of the arteries from their diabetes by the time of diagnosis.
The main symptoms are similar to those of Type 1 diabetes.

  • Thirst.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Tiredness.
  • Weight loss may sometimes be present, but is not as marked as in Type 1 diabetes. Most people with Type 2 diabetes are overweight.
  • Itchiness, especially around the genitals, due to yeast infection (thrush).
  • Recurrent infections on the skin, eg yeast infections or boils.

Things to look out for

  • If other members of your family have Type 2 diabetes, this increases your risk of getting the condition.
  • If you are overweight you will significantly increase your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Almost all those affected by this condition are overweight. Your waist measurement is a good yardstick of your weight.
  • If you have high blood pressure or increased amounts of lipids (fat) in the blood.
  • If you've had a blood clot in the arteries supplying the heart (coronary thrombosis) or a stroke.
  • If you're on certain types of medications, especially corticosteroids or diuretics

Managing diabetes is like a three-way balancing act because you have to watch:

  • the medicines you take (insulin or pills)
  • the food that you eat
  • the amount of exercise you do

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Symptoms
It is important for all individuals, not only diabetics, to know the symptoms of Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. This condition will vary between people and with the severity of the glucose level fluctuation, but can produce Epinephrine secretion which, in mild conditions, results in dryness of the mouth and dizziness, sometimes combined with feeling faint. Moderate hypoglycemia results in neurological symptoms that are caused by disruption normal brain functioning. In instances of severe, the sufferer experiences the disorientation seen with moderate hypoglycermia to the extent that medical intervention is required and severe hypoglycemia can progress to the individual undergoing loss of consciousness and coma. Hypoglycemia can be diagnosed by a finger stick blood test that confirms that the blood glucose level is less than 60 mg/dl (3.3mMol/dl), in conjunction with the physical symptoms.

Mild Hypoglycemia:
Pale and Clammy Skin
Rapid Heart Rate
Weakness and or Trembling
Abnormal sensations of the skin
Awareness of the heart beating
Shakiness
Hunger
Nausea
Anxiety or panic
Moderate Hypoglycemia
Lack of coordination
Slurred speech
Blurred vision
Confusion and unable to make rational decisions
Extreme fatigue
Sleepiness
Severe Hypoglycemia:
Inability to wake from sleep
Disorientation
Automatic seeming behavior
Loss of consciousness

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Treatment

The first thing to be done when experiencing hypoglycemia is to bring up the levels of blood sugar back to its normal values. This is achieved by ingesting a hard candy or any food products rich in carbohydrates. Diabetics should always carry an emergency supply of carbohydrates, such as hard candy, just in case hypoglycemia strikes. They should also be familiar with their bodies so as to readily detect early symptoms of hypoglycemia and start treatment at once so as to avoid further complications that may arise from it. Begin treatment of hypoglycemia promptly when symptoms of low levels of blood sugar are felt, even if there is a possibility that the symptoms presented are not from hypoglycemia, it is always safer to presume that the symptoms are caused by hypoglycemia.
Mild Hypoglycemia Treatment

  • Using carbohydrates of even just a small amount, around 15 grams, can resolve a mild case of hypoglycemia easily, emitting a positive response from the patient. How can you be sure that the carbohydrate rich food taken measures only 15 grams? Here are the several examples: 1 cup of milk
  • 3 ounces of grape juice
  • 6 ounces of orange juice
  • 3 teaspoons of honey
  • 5 ounces of Coke or 7up

Moderate Hypoglycemia Treatment
For those suffering from moderate hypoglycemia, a larger amount of carbohydrate is needed to place levels of blood sugar within acceptable levels, about double the amount for mild cases, or approximately thirty grams of carbohydrates. This means that aside from the initial hard candy given to halt the hypoglycemia from progressing, an additional meal afterward is also needed. Levels of blood sugar may be measured and used as a reference for treatment. There are patients who still have exhibited neurological symptoms even if the blood sugar levels have already normalized to over 100 mg/dL.

Severe Hypoglycemia Treatment
Cases of severe hypoglycemia should be treated at once. With these cases, every minute counts towards the success of the treatment. Do not force an unconscious patient to ingest food or drink. The most effective treatment is the intraveneous injection of glucose. Glucagon vials are available for home treatment. The usual adult dose is 1 mg. Also, check on the expiration date of the vials used, to be sure is has not yet expired. It is also encouraged that families familiarize themselves with the technique of injecting glucagon so as to be prepared should an emergency arise. They can practice using sterile saline solution. If there is no visible response to the treatment, or if there is no glucagon available for injection, 911 should be called. There are some conditions wherein hypoglycemia persists for several hours especially if the patient is taking in chlorpropamide. To treat these delayed reactions, continuous monitoring of blood sugar levels is required and the infusion of glucose solution through the veins, especially if the patient is older.
Hypoglycemia is a very serious complication of diabetes. With knowledge, preperation, and some basic principles, it can be managed very well.

High Blood Sugar Symptoms Reviewed & Prevention Of High Blood Sugar Symptoms
High blood sugar symptoms can lead to both minor and more serious blood sugar related conditions for a lot of people with diabetes.
But before getting into the actual high blood sugar symptoms that you can experience you need to learn some important information about high blood sugar.
First, what is high blood sugar? Well, you are said to have high blood sugar, also known as hyperglycemia when your blood sugar level elevates and stays elevated.
There are a number of different things that can cause you to have the symptoms of high blood sugar, including:

  • Your diet;
  • Emotional stress;
  • Certain health conditions;
  • Lack of focused exercise;
  • Certain medications;
  • Some health supplements.

With a lot of high blood sugar symptoms you may feel normal and not think that you have any high blood sugar symptoms when in fact you do have high blood sugar. In addition, high blood sugar symptoms can be very mild or develop at an extremely slow pace.
Because of this fact, it's very important that you test your blood sugar on a regular basis using a good blood glucose analyzer and also to be aware of the following blood sugar symptoms:

  • Always being hungry;
  • Always being thirsty;
  • Dry mouth;
  • Constantly having to urinate;
  • Dry itchy skin;
  • Fatigue or extreme tiredness;
  • Blurred vision;
  • Recurrent infections
  • Impotence;
  • Slow healing of wounds;
  • Unexplained weight loss.

If you have any of the above mentioned symptoms of high blood sugar you should see your doctor to have them treated.
There are a number of long-term health risks associated with the symptoms of high blood sugar so it is advised to contact your doctor for a proper diagnosis of any high blood sugar symptoms you may be experiencing.
Some of the recommendations your doctor may make to relieve any symptoms of high blood sugar include:

  • Changing your medication or doses;
  • Proper diet and nutritional practices;
  • Incorporating a consistent exercise program (more on this below);
  • Using blood glucose analysers frequently.

It's been found that if you use blood glucose analyzers, exercise properly, follow a good nutritional plan and follow your doctors recommendations you may not suffer from any long-term health problems associated with the symptoms of high blood sugar.
However, by not making an effort to keep your blood sugar as close to normal as possible, you may indeed experience some long-term health problems, such as:
    * Trouble with your eyes: Diabetes can cause the very small blood vessels in your eyes to become damaged resulting in vision problems.
      Eye problems such as this may not cause any symptoms early on. So you should try to have an eye test performed each year.
    * Various kidney problems: Diabetes has been shown to be able to damage your kidneys as well. Again, you may not notice any damage to your kidneys until later on.
A number of problems occur when you have kidney damage as a result of diabetes or the symptoms of high blood sugar and include:
    * Waste products stay in your body instead of being transported out by urinating;
    * Protein and amino acids (the building blocks of protein) are expelled;
    * A build-up of waste products in your blood;
    * Kidney failure.
    * You may need to have a foot or leg amputated: Due to the extensive damage that results from diabetes on your nerves and blood circulation, you can be at serious risks of having serious conditions occur in your feet or legs.
      When the nerves in your feet become damaged, you may not notice any injuries or pain from various foot problems. With this, your feet can become infected badly before your realize that you have a problem with your feet.

      On top of this, because of poor blood circulation your body will not be able to properly fight any infections or heal any injuries. In the most serious cases you may need to have one or both feet, or even a leg amputated.
    * You may be more prone to a heart attack or stroke: Heart attacks are very common in people with type II diabetes. This is due to abnormal levels of blood fats & high blood pressure.
All of the above mentioned health problems associated with the symptoms of high blood sugar should be taken very seriously. The key is knowing what symptoms of diabetes and high blood sugar symptoms to look for and then doing what you can to improve your health.
Also remember that prevention is the key when it comes to blood sugar symptoms.
You should also note that not everyone with diabetes will have the exact same blood sugar symptoms. It's also true that some people will not show any high blood sugar symptoms at all.


   

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