Abdul Waheed (Late)

 

Abdul Waheed Memorial Blood Donor Society

In Memory Of My Beloved Father Who Always Wanted To Help Others In Time Of Need & Inspired Me To Do The Same. May Allah Have Mercy On His Soul & May He Always Rest In Peace. Do Pray for My Father, Me & The Blood Donor Team for this Humble Effort. -- Regards Usman Waheed [ PIA Flight Services Lahore Pakistan ]

 

Types of Transfusions

Most blood donations are divided (fractionated) into their components: red blood cells, platelets, clotting factors, plasma, antibodies (immunoglobulins), and white blood cells. Depending on the situation, people may receive only the cells from blood, only the clotting factors from blood, or some other blood component. Transfusing only selected blood components allows the treatment to be specific, reduces the risks of side effects, and can efficiently use the different components from a single unit of blood to treat several people.

Red Blood Cells: Packed red blood cells, the most commonly transfused blood component, can restore the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity. This component may be given to a person who is bleeding or who has severe anemia. The red blood cells are separated from the fluid component of the blood (plasma) and from the other cellular and cell-like components. This step concentrates the red blood cells so that they occupy less space, thus the term “packed.” Red blood cells can be refrigerated for up to 42 days. In special circumstances—for instance, to preserve a rare type of blood—red blood cells can be frozen for up to 10 years.

Platelets: Platelets can help restore the blood's clotting ability. They are usually given to people with too few platelets (thrombocytopenia), which may result in severe and spontaneous bleeding. Platelets can be stored for only 5 to 7 days.

Where to arrange for Blood platelets
Blood platelets are separated from the blood and it is usually recommended to transfuse it to the patient at the earliest as it is very difficult to store platelets.
There are two ways to separate platelets from blood

  1. Manual
  2. Through a Machine designed specially for this purpose

The Manual separation can be done from normally any lab which deals with Oncology (Cancer) Patients for example Hameed Latif Hospital Lahore, Anmool Hospital Lahore. Although this process is relatively cheaper but it is not so effective as its effeciency to raise the level of blood platelets is very low if compared to the mechanical process. You can also arrange blood platelets from Fatmid Foundation free of cost by donating 1 bottle of Blood Against 1 pack of platelets. (Fatmid Foundation is located between Central Point and Firdous Market Lahore, they are also working for a very noble cause, that is arranging blood for children suffering from thalassemia)
The Mechanical process however is very effective to raise the level of blood platelets but is expensive as compared to the manual one. To the best of our knowledge the mechanical separation facility is available in Lahore at Shaukat Khanam Memorial Hospital and Sheikh Zaid Hospital Lahore

Blood Clotting Factors: Blood clotting factors are proteins found in blood plasma that normally work with platelets to help the blood clot. Clotting factors may be obtained from plasma or manufactured. Manufactured proteins are called recombinant factor concentrates. Without clotting factors, bleeding would not stop after an injury. Individual concentrated blood clotting factors can be given to people who have an inherited bleeding disorder, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand's disease, and to those who are unable to produce enough clotting factors (usually because of severe infection or liver disease).

Plasma: Plasma, the fluid component of the blood, contains many proteins, including blood clotting factors. Plasma is used for bleeding disorders in which the missing clotting factor is unknown or when the specific clotting factor is not available. Plasma also is used when bleeding is caused by insufficient production of all or many of the different clotting factors, as a result of liver failure or severe infection. Plasma that is frozen right after it is separated from the cells of donor blood (fresh frozen plasma) can be stored for up to 1 year.

Antibodies: Antibodies (immunoglobulins), the disease-fighting components of blood, are sometimes given to provide temporary immunity to people who have been exposed to an infectious disease or who have low antibody levels. Infections for which antibodies are available include chickenpox, hepatitis, rabies, and tetanus. Antibodies are produced from treated plasma donations.

White Blood Cells: White blood cells are transfused to treat life-threatening infections in people who have a greatly reduced number of white blood cells or whose white blood cells are functioning abnormally. The use of white blood cell transfusions is rare, because improved antibiotics and the use of cytokine growth factors have greatly reduced the need for such transfusions. White blood cells are obtained by hemapheresis and can be stored for up to 24 hours.

Blood Substitutes: Blood substitutes that use certain chemicals or specially treated solutions of hemoglobin (a protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen) to carry and deliver oxygen to tissues are being developed. These solutions can be stored at room temperature for up to 2 years, making them attractive for transport to the site of trauma or to the battlefield. However, further research is needed before these blood substitutes become available for routine use.

Did You Know...
    * Doctors can specify what type of blood cells are given during a transfusion so that people get only those cells that are needed to treat their disorder.

Reference:-
Last full review/revision July 2007 by Harold S. Kaplan, MD; Donna L. Skerrett, MD

   

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